INTRODUCTION
       The term wrought implies the shaping of metal without melting it. Wrought iron is a widely-used metal for structural purpose prior to the use of steel. Wrought steel refers to hot-rolled steel and cold-rolled steel. Example of hot-rolled product is I-beam. Examples of cold-rolled product are plate, round & rectangular bar, tubes etc. Carbon steel is a big family of plain carbon steel and free machining steel.
       Alloy is a mixture of metallic substance with some other metallic subtance(s) or non-metallic substance(s). The metallic substance which present in bigger amount is called a host ingredient, base ingredient or parent ingredient. The so-called some other metallic subtance(s) or non-metallic substance(s) which present in smaller amount is called an alloying ingredient.
       Low alloy steel is alloy with less than 8% total alloying ingredient ; high alloy steel is alloy with more than 8% total alloying ingredient.

PLAIN CARBON STEEL (AISI 10XX)
it consists of Fe , C (<2%) and Mn (<1%)
it can be divided into :
1) low carbon steel              (<0.2%C)
2) medium carbon steel        (0.2-0.5%C)
3) high carbon steel              (>0.5%C)

FREE MACHINING STEEL
it consist of Fe , C (<2%) and Mn (<1%) with addition of S , P
it can be divided into :
1) resulfurized steel                                  AISI 11XX
2) resulfurised & rephosphorised steel        AISI 12XX

GET TO KNOW CARBON STEEL BY %C
0.05 - 0.12 %C          eg. pipe , nail
0.10 - 0.20 %C          eg. machine & structure steel
0.20 - 0.30 %C          eg. better grade of machine & structure steel
0.30 - 0.40 %C          eg. connecting rod , crane hook , axle
0.40 - 0.50 %C          eg. crankshaft , shaft
0.60 - 0.70 %C          eg. screw driver , grub screw
0.70 - 0.80 %C          eg. hammer , wrench
0.80 - 0.90 %C          eg. metal punch , chisel
0.90 - 1.00 %C          eg. spring
1.00 - 1.10 %C          eg. drill , tap , milling cutter
1.10 - 1.20 %C          eg. ball bearing , lathe tool
1.20 - 1.30 %C          eg. file , reamer
1.25 - 1.40 %C          eg. razor , saw , boring & finishing tool

LOW ALLOY STEEL
Mn, Ni, Cr, Mo and V are the alloying ingredients
there are many types :
manganese AISI 13XX       1.75%Mn
AISI 15XX       1.00-1.65%Mn
nickel AISI 23XX       3.50%Ni
AISI 25XX       5.00%Ni
nickel-chrome AISI 31XX       1.25%Ni , 0.65@0.80%Cr
AISI 33XX       3.50%Ni , 1.55%Cr
molybdenum AISI 40XX       0.25%Mo
AISI 44XX       0.40@0.52%Mo
chrome-moly AISI 41XX       0.95%Cr , 0.20%Mo
nickel-chrome-moly AISI 43XX       1.82%Ni , 0.50@0.80%Cr , 0.25%Mo
AISI 47XX       1.45%Ni , 0.45%Cr , 0.20@0.35%Mo
nickel-moly AISI 46XX       0.82@1.82%Ni , 0.25%Mo
AISI 48XX       3.50%Ni , 0.25%Mo
chrome AISI 50XX       0.27-0.65%Cr
AISI 51XX       0.80-1.05%Cr
AISI 52XX       1.45%Cr
chrome-vanadium AISI 61XX       0.60-0.95%Cr , 0.10-0.15%Cr(min)


HIGH ALLOY STEEL
it can be divided into :
1) corrosion resistance
2) wear resistance
3) heat resistance

STAINLESS STEEL
the corrosion resistance of stainless steel is due to the content of (>12%) Cr
(gp) indicates general purpose
(et) indicates for elevated temperature service
(wd) indicates modified for welding
(hh) indicates hardenable by heat treatment
(hc) indicates hardenable by cold working
martensitic ferretic austenitic precipitation-hardening (PH)
12-17% Cr , 0.15-1.0% C 12-30% Cr 16-25% , 7-20% Ni ?
400 series 400 series 200 series + 300 series ?
magnetic magnetic nonmagnetic ?
AISI 410 (gp)
AISI 420 (hh)
AISI 440C (hh)
AISI 405 (wd)
AISI 430 (gp)
AISI 446 (et)
AISI 201 (hc)
AISI 202 (gp)
AISI 301 (hc)
AISI 302 (gp)
AISI 302B (et)
AISI 304 (gp)
AISI 304L (wd)
AISI 310 (et)
AISI 316 (superior corrosion resistance)
AISI 321 (wd)
?


CAST IRON
cast iron is a cousin of plain carbon steel, but it has higher C content (>2%) and comes with Si (<3%)
Si = graphite stabilizing element
white gray ductile malleable
2.5-3.0% C 2.5-4.0% C 3.0-4.0% C 2.0-2.6% C
0.5-1.5% Si 1.0-3.0% Si 1.8-2.8% Si 1.1-1.6% Si


CAST STEEL
it is similar to wrought steel in chemical composition, but less %C than cast iron
it can be divided into :
1) low carbon              (<0.2%C)
2) medium carbon        (0.2-0.5%C)
3) high carbon              (>0.5%C)

NUMBERING SYSTEM : AISI-SAE
the 1st 2 digits = principal alloying ingredient
the 2nd 2 digits = hundredths of percent carbon

NUMBERING SYSTEM : UNS
A = aluminum & aluminum alloy
C = copper & copper alloy
F = cast iron
G : the 1st 4 digits = AISI-SAE number
J = cast steel
K = miscellaneous steels & ferrous alloy
N = nickel & nickel alloy
S = corrosion resistant steel
the 5th digit = special situation ; otherwise just put "zero"

GET TO KNOW GERMAN STANDARD
some selection :
DIN standard no. DIN WNr. DIN designation AISI UNS ASTM
1691 0.6010 GG-10 / F11401 A48 Cl.20
? 0.6018 GG-18 / F11701 A48 Cl.25
1691 0.6020 GG-20 / F12101 A48 Cl.30
? 0.6022 GG-22 / F12101 A48 Cl.35
1691 0.6025 GG-25 / F12801 A48 Cl.40
1691 0.6030 GG-30 / F13101 A48 Cl.45
1691 0.6035 GG-35 / F13501 A48 Cl.50
1692 0.8040 GTW-40-05 / / /
1693-1 , 1693-2 0.7040 GGG-40 / F32800 , F32800 A536 60-40-18 , A395 F32800
? 0.7042 GGG-42 / F32800 , F32800 A536 60-40-18 , A395 F32800
1693-1 , 1693-2 0.7050 GGG-50 / F33100 A536 60-45-12
1626 , 1629 1.0254 St 37.0 / K02401 A283 Gr.C
1626 , 1629 1.0256 St 44.0 / K03006 A334 Gr.6
? 1.0308 St 35.0 / K02504 , G10200 A53 Type S Gr.A , A519 Gr.1020
1626 , 1629 1.0421 St 52.0 / / , G15180 A252 Gr.3 , A519 Gr.1518
/ / / / / A36
? 1.1121 Ck 10 1010 G10100 A576 Gr.1010
? 1.1141 Ck 15 1015 G10150 A29 Gr.1015 , A576 Gr.1015
17201 1.1151 Ck 22 1023 G10230 A29 Gr.1023 , A576 Gr.1023
? 1.1158 Ck 25 1025 G10250 A108 Gr.1025 , A576 Gr.1025
17201 1.1181 Ck 35 1034 G10340 A29 Gr.1034
17201 1.1191 Ck 45 1045 G10450 A108 Gr.1045 , A576 Gr.1045
17201 1.1221 Ck 60 1064 G10640 A29 Gr.1064
17440 , 17441 1.4000 X 6 Cr 13 410S S41008 A959 410S
17440 , 17441 1.4002 X 6 CrAl 13 405 S40500 A959 405
17440 , 17441 1.4006 X 10 Cr 13 410 S41000 A959 410
17440 , 17441 1.4301 X 5 CrNi 18 9 304 S30400 A959 304
17440 , 17441 1.4306 X 2 CrNi 18 9 304L S30403 A959 304L
17440 , 17441 1.4401 X 5 CrNiMo 18 10 316 S31600 A959 316
17440 , 17441 1.4404 X 2 CrNiMo 18 10 316L S31603 A959 316L
17440 , 17441 1.4541 X 6 CrNiTi 18 10 321 S32100 A959 321
17440 , 17441 1.4571 X 6 CrNiMoTi 17122 316Ti S31635 A959 316Ti
17445 1.4008 G X 7 CrNiMo 12-1 / / /


COMMONLY-USED METALLIC MATERIAL


COMMONLY-USED POLYMERIC MATERIAL


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