health is precious ..... don't lose it ..... money can't buy health ..... even though it is more comfortable to cry in a BMW than on a bicycle


There are 6 major classes of nutrients, i.e., carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins, and water.
Carbohydrates are made up of sugars, starches and fiber. Fiber is the only form of carbohydrate that cannot be digested by the body.

Heart Rate

Bradycardia is a heart rate below normal range, i.e., less than 60 Beats Per Minute (BPM). It is associated with myxedema, heart block, raised IC tension, obstructive jaundice, etc.
On the other hand, Tachycardia is above normal range, i.e., more than 100 BPM. It is associated with sinus tachycardia, PAT, atrial flutter, ventricular tach, etc.

The following are copied from

Blood Pressure

A normal systolic blood pressure is below 120 mm Hg; and a normal diastolic blood pressure is below 80 mm Hg.

Blood Sugar

Diabetes is a disease in which your blood sugar (glucose) are too high. With type 1 diabetes, our body does not produce insulin. With type 2 diabetes, our body does not produce enough insulin, or the cells in the body do not react to insulin (insulin resistance).

Note: Insulin is a hormone that makes our body's cells absorb glucose from the blood.

For ranges, please visit


The risks of high cholesterol are heart attack and stroke.

For ranges, please visit

Body Mass Index (BMI)

BMI is a measure of body fat based on height and weight.

Below are some of the on-line calculators:

Note: 1 kg ≈ 2.2 lb

Belly Fat

How to burn belly fat? We have to master the subject. In other words, the better we get to know it, the easier it is to make it vanish.

First of all, stomach crunches are inefficient in burning belly fat. Stomach crunches, like all strengthening exercises, are only supposed
to strengthen and toughen the muscles of the stomach.

Secondly, fats are long-term storage of energy converted from unburned (extra) carbohydrates, and fats get burned in the absence of carbohydrates.

Judging from these, in order to burn the belly fat, we have to ensure energy out is more than energy in. At the extreme end,
dinner should be free from carbohydrates. Veggies and fruits are good choice for dinner. The following image is copied from

Calories per gram:
           1g of carbohydrates ≈ 4 calories
           1g of proteins ≈ 4 calories
           1g of fats ≈ 9 calories
           1g of alcohol ≈ 7 calories
           1g of non-starchy veggies ≈ less than 1 calories
           1g of starchy veggies ≈ less than 1 calories
           1g of other veggies ≈ less than 1 calories

Examples of non-starchy veggies are alfalfa sprouts, artichoke, bamboo shoots, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, celery, cucumber, eggplant, bean sprouts, turnip and rutabaga, spinach, tomato, etc. Examples of starchy veggies are peas, carrots, potatoes, corn, sweet potatoes, etc. Examples of other veggies are green beans, kohlrabi, mushrooms, okra, pimentos, zucchini, etc.

Eyesight Problems

There are 3 types of refractive error which can be treated with corrective lenses:
           Long-sightedness (hypermetropia @ hyperopia)
           Short sightedness (myopia)

Other problems:
           Double vision (diplopia)
           Strabismus (squint)
           Lazy Eye (amblyopia)
           Impaired depth perception:
           Glare and halos
           Night blindness
           Flashing lights
           Color blindness


Knee pain can be caused by injuries, mechanical problems, types of arthritis, and other problems. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis. It is the gradual wearing away of the articular cartilage that covers the ends of the bones in a joint. Often called wear-and-tear arthritis, it is the fate runners dread.

1) maintain your ideal body weight
2) do a variety of physical activity; avoid repetitive stress on the joints
3) exercise regularly; forget the weekend warrior
4) learn not to push past your limits; discomfort (slight pain) is a stop sign
5) avoid jogging on cement, asphalt or other hard surfaces
6) get a quality pair of jogging shoes

Post Nasal Drip Syndrome (PNDS)

PNDS falls under rhinology, a subspecialty within otolaryngology @ ENT (ear, nose, and throat). It is a complex condition involving the backward flow of thick and stringy nasal mucus down the naso-pharynx (back of the throat). Its regular symptoms include excessive coughing, etc. The main causes of PNDS are allergies, a deviated nasal septum, etc.

A deviated septum occurs when the thin wall (nasal septum) between your nostrils is displaced to one side. Your septum separates your right and left nasal cavities and ideally is situated in the center of your nose, equally separating the two sides. However, in many people, the nasal septum is displaced, making one nasal passage smaller. This alters the flow pattern of air entering the nose and sometimes the narrow side of the nose is blocked. The symptoms may be a deviated septum are blockage of one or both nostrils, nasal congestion (sometimes one side of the nose), frequent sinus infections, etc.


I would say the best solution is to understand our "body" clock. Unlike the 24-hour day, the "body" hour is about 90 minutes. Every "body" hour, there is a window of a few minutes. This is when you feel sleeping and you can fall asleep easily. If you miss this window, you may have to wait for the next window which is about 90 minutes later.

Breast Cancer

Symptoms associated with breast cancer:
1) lumps, hard knot or thickening inside the breast or underarm area
2) swelling, warmth, redness or darkening of the breast
3) change in the size or shape of the breast
4) dimpling or puckering of the skin
5) itchy, scaly sore or rash on the nipple
6) pulling in of your nipple or other parts of the breast
7) nipple discharge that starts suddenly
8) new pain in one spot that does not go away
For illustration, please visit

Breast lumps can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Some terms:
Carcinoma = cancer
Adenocarcinoma = a general term that refers to a cancer that starts in glandular tissues (lobules and ducts)
Lobular carcinoma = adenocarcinoma that originates in lobules that produce the milk
Ductal carcinoma = adenocarcinoma that begins in ducts that carry the milk from the lobules to the nipple
Non-invasive breast cancer = adenocarcinomas that are confined to lobules or ducts = in situ = in the original place
Invasive breast cancer = a carcinoma that has spread from lobules or ducts to fatty connective tissue.

Human Anatomy

superficial anatomy @ surface anatomy
articular cartilage of knee



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